## Elementary Surveying By La Putt.pdf

## - Who is Juny Pilapil La Putt and what is his book about? - What are the main topics covered in the book? H2: Basic concepts and principles of surveying - Definition and classification of surveying - Units of measurement and conversion factors - Errors and accuracy in surveying - Basic surveying instruments and their uses H3: Measurement of distances and directions - Methods of measuring distances: direct, indirect, electronic - Sources of errors and corrections in distance measurement - Methods of measuring directions: compass, transit, theodolite - Sources of errors and corrections in direction measurement H4: Traverse surveying - Definition and types of traverse: closed, open, link - Methods of traverse computation: latitude and departure, coordinate method, Bowditch rule, transit rule - Adjustment of traverse: angular adjustment, linear adjustment, least squares adjustment - Plotting and area computation of traverse H5: Leveling - Definition and types of leveling: differential, profile, cross-section, reciprocal - Methods of leveling: height of instrument method, rise and fall method - Sources of errors and corrections in leveling - Leveling instruments: dumpy level, tilting level, automatic level H6: Contouring - Definition and characteristics of contours - Methods of contouring: direct method, indirect method - Contour interpolation and smoothing - Contour maps and their uses H7: Plane table surveying - Definition and advantages of plane table surveying - Equipment and accessories for plane table surveying - Methods of plane table surveying: radiation, intersection, traversing, resection - Sources of errors and precautions in plane table surveying H8: Tacheometric surveying - Definition and principles of tacheometric surveying - Tacheometric instruments: stadia tacheometer, subtense tacheometer - Tacheometric formulas and constants - Sources of errors and corrections in tacheometric surveying H9: Curves - Definition and types of curves: horizontal curves, vertical curves - Elements and terminology of curves - Methods of setting out curves: linear methods, angular methods, combined methods - Transition curves and super elevation H10: Topographic surveying - Definition and objectives of topographic surveying - Methods of topographic surveying: triangulation, traversing, plane table, photogrammetry - Symbols and conventions for topographic maps - Scales and reduction of topographic maps H11: Hydrographic surveying - Definition and objectives of hydrographic surveying - Methods of hydrographic surveying: soundings, tide gauges, current meters - Hydrographic instruments: echo sounder, sextant, chronometer - Hydrographic charts and their uses H12: Astronomical surveying - Definition and objectives of astronomical surveying - Celestial sphere and coordinate systems: horizon system, equatorial system, ecliptic system - Astronomical instruments: sextant, artificial horizon, chronometer - Astronomical observations and computations: latitude, longitude, azimuth H13: Geodetic surveying - Definition and objectives of geodetic surveying - Shape and size of the earth: spheroid, ellipsoid, geoid - Geodetic datum and coordinate systems: geodetic latitude, geodetic longitude, geodetic height - Geodetic instruments and methods: triangulation, trilateration, satellite positioning H14: Land surveying - Definition and objectives of land surveying - Types of land surveys: cadastral, boundary, subdivision, reclamation - Land surveying instruments and methods: chain, tape, compass, GPS - Land surveying laws and regulations: Public Land Act, Land Registration Act, cadastral act H15: Conclusion - Summary of the main points of the article - Recommendations for further reading and learning - Closing remarks and call to action # Article with HTML formatting Introduction

Surveying is the science and art of measuring and representing the physical features and dimensions of the earth. Surveying is essential for various purposes, such as mapping, engineering, construction, mining, agriculture, navigation, and land management. Surveying is one of the oldest professions in the world, dating back to ancient times when people needed to measure their lands, boundaries, and buildings.

One of the most comprehensive and authoritative books on surveying is Elementary Surveying by Juny Pilapil La Putt. The author is a Filipino civil engineer and professor who has taught surveying for more than 40 years. He has also written several other books on civil engineering topics, such as hydraulics, soil mechanics, and structural analysis. His book on elementary surveying is intended for students and practitioners who want to learn the basic concepts and principles of surveying.

The book covers a wide range of topics related to surveying, such as measurement of distances and directions, traverse surveying, leveling, contouring, plane table surveying, tacheometric surveying, curves, topographic surveying, hydrographic surveying, astronomical surveying, geodetic surveying, and land surveying. The book also provides numerous examples, illustrations, problems, exercises, tables, and formulas to help the reader understand and apply the theory and practice of surveying. The book is divided into 15 chapters, each of which will be discussed in detail in this article.

## Basic concepts and principles of surveying

The first chapter of the book introduces the basic concepts and principles of surveying. It defines surveying as the process of determining the relative positions of points on or near the surface of the earth by means of direct or indirect measurements of distances, directions, angles, and elevations. It also classifies surveying into two main types: plane surveying and geodetic surveying. Plane surveying assumes that the earth is flat and deals with small areas. Geodetic surveying considers that the earth is curved and deals with large areas.

The chapter also explains the units of measurement and conversion factors used in surveying. It shows how to convert between different systems of units, such as metric, English, and nautical. It also shows how to convert between different units of angles, such as degrees, minutes, seconds, radians, grads, and mils.

The chapter also discusses the errors and accuracy in surveying. It distinguishes between different types of errors, such as systematic errors, random errors, gross errors, and compensating errors. It also describes different methods of minimizing or correcting errors, such as calibration, repetition, balancing, and adjustment. It also defines different measures of accuracy, such as precision, reliability, and tolerance.

The chapter also introduces the basic surveying instruments and their uses. It describes the main components and functions of instruments such as chains, tapes, rods, compasses, transits, theodolites, levels, stadia rods, plane tables, and tacheometers. It also explains how to use these instruments for various surveying operations.

### Measurement of distances and directions

The second chapter of the book deals with the measurement of distances and directions in surveying. It explains the methods of measuring distances by direct, indirect, and electronic means. Direct methods involve physical contact between the measuring device and the ground, such as using chains or tapes. Indirect methods involve optical or mathematical calculations based on observed angles or stadia intervals, such as using transits or tacheometers. Electronic methods involve electromagnetic waves or signals transmitted or reflected by devices such as EDMs or GPS.

The chapter also discusses the sources of errors and corrections in distance measurement. It identifies various factors that affect the accuracy of distance measurement, such as temperature, tension, sag, slope, alignment, and obstacles. It also shows how to apply corrections for these factors using formulas or tables.

The chapter also explains the methods of measuring directions by compass, transit, or theodolite. Directions are measured by horizontal angles or bearings from a reference meridian. Compass methods use magnetic meridians as references and measure angles by magnetic needles. Transit methods use arbitrary meridians as references and measure angles by graduated circles. Theodolite methods use true mer